Frequently Asked Questions

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Information to Support your Decisions


  1. Relationship of the Estimated Time of Ovulation Measured by Various Hormonal Methods and the Woman's Observation of the Peak Day, Published Evaluations.  Hilgers TW. Reproductive Anatomy and Phsyiology - A Primer for Fertility Care Professionals.  Second Edition table 7-3 pg66.
  2. World Health Organization, Task Force on Methods for the Determination of the Fertile Period (1983) A prospective multicentre trial of the ovulation method of natural family planning. III. Characteristics of the menstrual cycle and the fertile phase. Fertil. Steril. 40:773-778.
  3. Turner (2016) Fertility-awareness practice and education in general practice.  Aust J Prim Health. 22:375-376.
  4. Pallone, Bergus (2009) Fertility awareness-based methods: another option for family planning. J Am Board Fam Med. 22(2):147-57.
  5. Trussell (2011) Contraceptive failure in the United States.  Contraception. 83(5):397-404.
  6. Family Planning Alliance Australia (2014) Efficacy of Contraception Methods. [cited 14 Jan 2018.] Available from URL:
  7. Turner (2017) In response to: Current barriers and potential strategies to increase the use of long-acting reversible contraception to reduce the rate of unintended pregnancies in Australia: An expert roundtable discussion. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 57(6):E15-E16.
  8. Frank-Herrmann, et al. (2007) The effectiveness of a fertility awareness based method to avoid pregnancy in relation to a couple’s sexual behaviour during the fertile time: a prospective longitudinal study. Hum Reprod. 22:1310-9.
  9. Hilgers, Stanford (1998). Creighton Model NaProEducation Technology for avoiding pregnancy. Use effectiveness. J Reprod Med. 43:495-502.
  10. Bhargava, et al. (1996) Field trial of billings ovulation method of natural family planning. Contraception. 53:69-74.
  11. Johnson, Marriott, Zinaman (2018) Can apps and calendar methods predict ovulation with accuracy? Curr Med Res Opin. 34(9):1587-1594.
  12. Freis, et al. (2018) Plausibility of Menstrual Cycle Apps Claiming to Support Conception. Front Public Health. 6:98.
  13. Brown (2011) Types of ovarian activity in women and their significance: the continuum (a reinterpretation of early findings). Human Reproduction Update. 17:141-158.
  14. Wilcox, et al. (1995). Timing of sexual intercourse in relation to ovulation. Effects on the probability of conception, survival of the pregnancy, and sex of the baby. N Engl J Med, 333, 1517-1521.

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